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Elbow

  • Elbow Arthroscopy

    Elbow Arthroscopy

    Elbow arthroscopy, also referred to as keyhole or minimally invasive surgery, is a surgical procedure that is performed through tiny incisions to evaluate and treat several elbow conditions.

  • Total Elbow Replacement

    Total Elbow Replacement

    Elbow joint replacement, also referred to as total elbow arthroplasty, is an operative procedure to treat the symptoms of arthritis that have not responded to non-surgical treatments. The goal of elbow joint replacement surgery is to eliminate your pain and increase the mobility of your elbow joint.

  • Golfer's Elbow Surgery

    Golfer's Elbow Surgery

    Golfer’s elbow is a condition associated with pain on the inside of the elbow where tendons of your forearm attach to the bony prominence (medial epicondyle). It is also called medial epicondylitis and is caused by injury or irritation to the tendons which can become painful and swollen.

  • Tennis Elbow Surgery

    Tennis Elbow Surgery

    Tennis elbow is a common name for the elbow condition lateral epicondylitis. It is an overuse injury that causes inflammation and microtears of the tendons that attach to the lateral epicondyle.

  • UCL Reconstruction (Tommy John Surgery)

    UCL Reconstruction (Tommy John Surgery)

    Commonly called Tommy John surgery, this procedure involves reconstructing a damaged ligament on the inside of the elbow called the ulnar or medial collateral ligament with a tendon graft obtained from your own body or a donor.

  • Elbow Ligament Reconstruction

    Elbow Ligament Reconstruction

    Ligament reconstruction is considered in patients with ligament rupture. Your surgeon will make an incision over the elbow. Care is taken to move muscles, tendons, and nerves out of the way. The donor's tendon is harvested from either the forearm or below the knee.

  • Elbow Tendon and Ligament Repair

    Elbow Tendon and Ligament Repair

    Ligament reconstruction is considered to treat ligament rupture. Your surgeon will make an incision over the elbow. Care is taken to move muscles, tendons, and nerves out of the way. The donor's tendon is harvested from either the forearm or below the knee.

  • Biceps Tendon Repair

    Biceps Tendon Repair

    Biceps tendon repair is a surgical procedure to restore a biceps tendon that has been torn or ruptured by severe trauma or injury.

  • Revision Elbow Replacement

    Revision Elbow Replacement

    Revision elbow replacement is a surgery performed to replace a loose or worn out initial elbow replacement. Typically, cemented semi-constrained prostheses are used for revision elbow replacement.

  • Open Elbow Surgery

    Open Elbow Surgery

    Open elbow surgery is an operative procedure performed to treat certain conditions of your elbow through a large, open cut (incision) in the skin using a scalpel.

  • Malunion Surgery (Elbow)

    Malunion Surgery (Elbow)

    Malunion, also known as crooked healing, is the failure of a fractured bone to rejoin properly due to poor alignment of the fracture fragments. The condition results in abnormality and deformity of the bone (bent or twisted bone).

  • Non-union Surgery (Elbow)

    Non-union Surgery (Elbow)

    Non-union surgery of the elbow is an operation performed to restore a broken or fractured bone in your elbow joint that has failed to heal even after appropriate treatment.

  • Elbow Fracture Reconstruction

    Elbow Fracture Reconstruction

    Elbow fracture reconstruction is a surgical procedure employed to repair and restore the appearance and full function of a damaged elbow caused by severe trauma or injury.

  • Ulnar Nerve Transposition

    Ulnar Nerve Transposition

    The ulnar nerve is one of the 3 main nerves in the arm that travels down from the neck through a bony protuberance inside the elbow (medial epicondyle), under the muscles of the forearm and down the hand on the side of the palm, towards the little finger.

  • Viscosupplementation for Elbow Arthritis

    Viscosupplementation for Elbow Arthritis

    Viscosupplementation is a minimally invasive procedure that involves the injection of a hyaluronic acid preparation into the elbow joint to treat arthritis. Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring substance which is present in the joint fluid that acts as a shock absorber and enhances lubrication.

  • Bicep Tendon Tear at the Elbow

    Bicep Tendon Tear at the Elbow

    A biceps tear can be complete or partial. Partial biceps tendon tears will not completely break the tendon while complete tendon tears will break the tendon into two parts. Tears of the distal biceps tendon are usually complete and the muscle is separated from the bone.

  • Cubital Tunnel Syndrome (Ulnar Nerve Entrapment)

    Cubital Tunnel Syndrome (Ulnar Nerve Entrapment)

    When the elbow is bent, the ulnar nerve can stretch and catch on the bony bump. When the ulnar nerve is compressed or entrapped, the nerve can tear and become inflamed, leading to cubital tunnel syndrome.

  • Elbow Instability

    Elbow Instability

    Elbow instability is a condition in which the elbow joint occasionally slides out of alignment due to the unstable state of the joint.

  • Elbow Impingement

    Elbow Impingement

    Elbow impingement is a medical condition characterized by compression and injury of soft tissue structures, such as cartilage, at the back of the elbow or within the elbow joint. It is a condition caused by repetitive forced extensions and overuse of the elbow.

  • Posterior Impingement of the Elbow

    Posterior Impingement of the Elbow

    Posterior elbow impingement is a medical condition characterized by compression and injury of soft tissue structures such as cartilage at the posterior aspect (back) of the elbow joint. The impingement is caused by repetitive forced extensions and overuse of the elbow.

  • Lateral Impingement of the Elbow

    Lateral Impingement of the Elbow

    Lateral elbow impingement is a medical condition characterized by compression and injury of the soft tissue structures, such as cartilage located at the outer aspect of the elbow joint. The impingement is caused by repetitive forced extensions and overuse of the elbow.

  • Elbow Stiffness

    Elbow Stiffness

    Elbow stiffness is a condition characterized by a restricted range of motion of the elbow causing difficulty bending, straightening, or rotating your arm. Elbow stiffness may be caused due to injury, disease, or deformity.

  • Elbow Ligament Injuries

    Elbow Ligament Injuries

    Elbow ligament injuries are injuries to the tough elastic tissues that connect the bones of the elbow joint to each other. These ligaments stabilize the elbow while allowing an appropriate joint range of motion to occur. An acute or chronic injury to the elbow ligament can result in joint laxity and loss of elbow function.

  • Golfer's Elbow

    Golfer's Elbow

    Golfer’s elbow, also called medial epicondylitis, is a painful condition occurring from repeated muscle contractions in the forearm that leads to inflammation and microtears in the tendons that attach to the medial epicondyle.

  • Tennis Elbow

    Tennis Elbow

    Tennis elbow is a common name for the elbow condition lateral epicondylitis. It is an overuse injury that causes inflammation and microtears of the tendons that attach to the lateral epicondyle.

  • Elbow Dislocation

    Elbow Dislocation

    The arm in the human body is made up of three bones that join to form a hinge joint called the elbow. The upper arm bone or humerus connects from the shoulder to the elbow to form the top of the hinge joint. The lower arm or forearm consists of two bones, the radius, and the ulna.

  • Elbow Fractures

    Elbow Fractures

    Elbow fractures may occur from trauma, resulting from various reasons: a fall on an outstretched arm, a direct blow to the elbow or an abnormal twist to the joint beyond its functional limit.

  • Distal Humerus Fractures of the Elbow

    Distal Humerus Fractures of the Elbow

    Injury in the distal humerus can cause impairment in the function of the elbow joint. A distal humerus fracture is a rare condition that occurs when there is a break in the lower end of the humerus.

  • Radial Head Fractures of the Elbow

    Radial Head Fractures of the Elbow

    Radial head fractures are very common and occur in almost 20% of acute elbow injuries. Elbow dislocations are generally associated with radial head fractures. Radial head fractures are more common in women than in men and occur more frequently in the age group of 30 to 40 years.

  • Elbow Fractures in Children

    Elbow Fractures in Children

    Children’s bones have an area of developing cartilage tissue called a growth plate present at the end of long bones that will eventually develop into solid bone as the child grows.

  • Elbow (Olecranon) Bursitis

    Elbow (Olecranon) Bursitis

    Inflammation of the olecranon bursa leads to a condition called olecranon bursitis.

  • Elbow Sprain

    Elbow Sprain

    An elbow sprain is an injury to the soft tissues of the elbow. It is caused due to stretching or tearing (partial or full) of the ligaments that support the elbow joint.

  • Throwing Injuries

    Throwing Injuries

    An athlete uses an overhand throw to achieve greater speed and distance. Repeated throwing in sports such as baseball and basketball can place a lot of stress on the joints of the arm, and lead to weakening and ultimately, injury to the structures in the elbow.

  • Elbow Arthritis

    Elbow Arthritis

    Although the elbows are not weight-bearing joints, they are considered to be most important for the functioning of the upper limbs. Hence, even minor trauma or disease affecting the elbow may cause pain and limit the movements of the upper limbs.

  • Elbow Pain

    Elbow Pain

    Damage to any of the structures that make up the elbow joint can cause elbow pain.

  • Triceps Tendonitis

    Triceps Tendonitis

    Triceps tendonitis is inflammation of the triceps tendon, the tissue that connects the triceps muscle on the back of the upper arm to the back of the elbow joint, allowing you to straighten your arm back after you have bent it.

  • Osteochondritis Dissecans of Elbow

    Osteochondritis Dissecans of Elbow

    Osteochondritis dissecans is a joint condition in which a piece of cartilage, along with a thin layer of bone separates because of inadequate blood supply. The separated fragments are sometimes called “joint mice”.

  • Little League Elbow

    Little League Elbow

    Little league elbow, also called medial apophysitis, is an overuse condition that occurs when there is overstress or injury to the inside portion of the elbow. It is commonly seen in children involved in sports activities that require repetitive throwing such as baseball.

  • Elbow Contracture

    Elbow Contracture

    Elbow contracture refers to a stiff elbow with a limited range of motion. It is a common complication following elbow surgery, fractures, dislocations, and burns.

  • Loose Bodies in the Elbow

    Loose Bodies in the Elbow

    Your elbow is a joint made up of three bones held together by muscles, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage. It is both a hinge and pivot joint allowing you to bend and rotate your elbow freely. Loose bodies in your elbow are small pieces of bone or cartilage that have broken off and are lying or floating free within the joint.

  • Ulnar Nerve Neuropathy

    Ulnar Nerve Neuropathy

    Ulnar nerve neuropathy is the entrapment or compression of the ulnar nerve causing impairment of its function.

The elbow is a complex joint formed by the articulation of three bones – the humerus, radius, and ulna. The elbow joint helps in bending or straightening of the arm to 180 degrees and lifting or moving objects.

The bones of the elbow are supported by:

  • Ligaments and tendons
  • Muscles
  • Nerves
  • Blood vessels

Bones and Joints of the Elbow

The elbow joint is formed at the junction of three bones:

  • The humerus (upper arm bone) forms the upper portion of the joint. The lower end of the humerus divides into two bony protrusions known as the medial and lateral epicondyles, which can be felt on either side of the elbow joint.
  • The ulna is the larger bone of the forearm located on the inner surface of the joint. It articulates with the humerus.
  • The radius is the smaller bone of the forearm situated on the outer surface of the joint. The head of the radius is circular and hollow, which allows movement with the humerus. The articulation between the ulna and radius helps the forearm to rotate.

The elbow consists of three joints, namely:

  • The humeroulnar joint is formed between the humerus and ulna and allows flexion and extension of the arm.
  • The humeroradial joint is formed between the radius and humerus and allows movements like flexion, extension, supination, and pronation.
  • The radioulnar joint is formed between the ulna and radius bones and allows rotation of the lower arm.

Articular cartilage lines the articulating regions of the humerus, radius, and ulna. It is a thin, tough, flexible and slippery surface that acts as a shock absorber and cushion to reduce friction between the bones. The cartilage is lubricated with synovial fluid, which further enables the smooth movement of the bones.

Muscles of the Elbow Joint

There are several muscles extending across the elbow joint that help in various movements. These include the following:

  • Biceps brachii: Upper arm muscle, enabling flexion of the arm
  • Triceps brachii: Muscle in the back of the upper arm that extends the arm and fixes the elbow during fine movements
  • Brachialis: Upper arm muscle beneath the biceps, which flexes the elbow towards the body
  • Brachioradialis: Forearm muscle that flexes, straightens and pulls the arm at the elbow
  • Pronator teres: Muscle that extends from the humeral head, across the elbow, and towards the ulna, and helps to turn the palm facing backward
  • Extensor carpi radialis brevis: Forearm muscle that helps in movement of the hand
  • Extensor digitorum: Forearm muscle that helps in movement of the fingers

Ligaments and Tendons of the Elbow

The elbow joint is supported by ligaments and tendons, which provide stability to the joint.

Ligaments are a group of firm tissues that connect bones to other bones. The most important ligaments of the elbow joint are the:

  • Medial or ulnar collateral ligament: Comprised of triangular bands of tissue on the inner side of the elbow joint
  • Lateral or radial collateral ligament: A thin band of tissue on the outer side of the elbow joint
  • Annular ligament: Group of fibers that surround the radial head, and hold the ulna and radius tightly in place during movement of the arm

Together, the medial and lateral ligaments are the main source of stability and hold the humerus and ulna tightly in place during movement of the arm.

The ligaments around a joint combine to form a joint capsule that contains synovial fluid.

Any injury to these ligaments can lead to instability of the elbow joint.

Tendons are bands of connective tissue fibers that connect muscle to bone. The various tendons that surround the elbow joint include:

  • Biceps tendon: attaches the biceps muscle to the radius, allowing the elbow to bend
  • Triceps tendon: attaches the triceps muscle to the ulna, allowing the elbow to straighten

Nerves of the Elbow

The main nerves of the elbow joint are the ulnar, radial and median nerves. These nerves transfer signals from the brain to the muscles that aid in elbow movements. They also carry sensory signals such as touch, pain, and temperature back to the brain.

Any injury or damage to these nerves causes pain, weakness or joint instability.

Blood Vessels Supplying the Elbow

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-pure blood from the heart to the hand. The main artery of the elbow is the brachial artery that travels across the inside of the elbow and divides into two small branches below the elbow to form the ulnar and the radial artery.